Calluses, which seem to be more common in large breeds, are the result of pressure from laying on hard surfaces. Mild calluses are usually harmless, but large or infected ones require veterinary treatment. To prevent elbow calluses, provide soft bedding or padding for your dog’s resting place. Choose material that can be replaced or washed frequently for sanitary purposes. If your dog is inclined to chew or swallow material, ask your veterinarian to recommend a product.